Popkin, Revolutionary news: the press in France, isbn, Duke University Press, 1990, Google Print,.21 Barker, Burrows, 2002, Google Print,.39 a b Barker, Burrows, 2002, Google Print,.34 a b c Barker, Burrows, 2002, Google Print,.36 a b Jack Richard Censer, Jeremy.
11 Sources vary on when the Courier stopped publication.
Prussian exclave east of the, dutch Republic 1 1 3, contents, background edit, in the 18th century, the Netherlands (United Provinces) were very tolerant in matters of freedom of the press and religious freedom.
Courier of, lower Rhine ) was one of the leading European papers of the late 18th century and the.9 10 11 It was often in major opposition to another leading journal of its time, Gazette de Leyde (the papers were, for example, on opposite sides concerning the Dutch Revolution ).4, contents and history edit, the Courier had a circulation of 1430 in 1793 and 530 in 1801.15 Editors edit Post-1810: References edit a b c d Hanna Barker, Simon Burrows, Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, Cambridge University Press, 2002, Google Print,.24-25 Barker, Burrows, 2002, Google Print,.28 Barker, Burrows, 2002,.159 a b John.French History, 2007, Online Barker, Burrows, 2002,.29 (in French) Anne-Marie Mercier-Faivre, Le travail du couple echangiste nord pas de calais gazetier Further reading edit Matthias Beermann, Zeitung zwischen Profit und Politik.Ute van Runset, "Faits divers et la guerre dans La Gazette de Cologne et le Journal du Bas-Rhin (1756-1779 Information, prise de position, distraction" Ute Van Runset, "La politique de Frédéric II et les gazettes : Entre le Courrier du Bas-Rhin et la Gazette de Cologne".8 Courier du Bas Rhin supported enlightened absolutism ; 9 supported British liberties - but doubted they were fully respected; 10 supported the Dutch Stadholder, 10 and was sympathetic to the French Revolution (although mostly, post-revolution).Read by the European elites, in France echange produit darty these papers were called "Foreign gazettes".Unlike most contemporary countries, such as France, Great Britain or the Holy Roman Empire, there was little government interference ( censorship or monopolies ) there.Barker and Burrows suggest 1807, 1 while Beermann indicates 1810.Courier du Bas-Rhin (or, courrier du Bas Rhin, lit.1, it was published in, french language in, kleve (Cleves) (then.Alexander, Re-writing the French revolutionary tradition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, isbn, Google Print,.115 a.5 It was heavily influenced by the Prussian authorities, and seen by some as a Prussian propaganda outlet.Many, huguenots were exiled to the Netherlands during the reign.6 7 It lost most of its remaining independence around, when the authorities took control of most German newspapers.Several exiles begun publishing French-language (as it was both an international language and their own - see lieu libertin indre et loire lingua franca ) newspapers in various European cities covering political news in France and Europe.De Vet, "Le Courrier du Bas-Rhin de Jean Manzon et les Provinces-Unies (1787-1795 Un traitement idéologique de l'information").12 Alexander notes that a publication with similar name was published in the first half of the 19th century.
Der Courier du Bas-Rhin (1767-1810) (Leipzig, 1996) a.
Der Courier du Bas-Rhin (17671810) (Leipzig, 1996).
Edict of Nantes in 1685.
Alexander, Re-writing the French revolutionary tradition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, isbn, Google Print,.147 Detmar Klein, The Virgin with the Sword: Marian Apparitions, Religion and National Identity in Alasce in the 1870s.